Manage VMs in your Hyper-V 3.0 environment

Do you know how to fully manage VMs in your Hyper-v 3.0 environment via Powershell?

Here is a list of useful commands for our day to day:

To check the host name:
Get-vmhost

To see more detailed information:
Get-vmhost | fl 

To check if there are already VMs running on the host:
Get-VM

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To check the adapters present on the host, type:
Get-NetAdapter


To check if there is any Virtual Switch created, just type:
Get-VMSwitch 


Once the adapter and the type of virtual switch are defined, simply create with the following Powershell command: (A Switch called Public_Network will be created using the network card called Ethernet, where the host management will be enabled and will be of the external type):
New-VMSwitch –Name “Public_Network” –NetAdapterName “Ethernet” –AllowManagementOS $true


To create a virtual private switch called VMSwPr1 the following command could be used:
New-VMSwitch –Name “VMSwPr1” –switchtype Private


To create a new VM the simple command is:
New-VM


With the above command, a new VM will be created, with 512 MB of fixed memory, a virtual processor, without a VHDx assigned using the standard Hyper-V folders. Its name will be New Virtual Machine To know the default folder where the VM is being created, just type:
Get-VMHost | select VirtualMachinePath, VirtualHardDiskPath

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If the command above was used to create the VM, to view the settings just type:
Get-vm -Name new * | fl *


If the idea is to create a VM from scratch with specific configurations and in specific folders we will use the same command, only with parameters:
New-VM -Name VMT01 -MemoryStartupBytes 1GB -Path d: \ vms –NewVHDPath d: \ vms \ VMT01 \ VMT01.vhdx -NewVHDSizeBytes 60GB -SwitchName Public_Network


With the Powershell command above, a new VM was created called VMT01, with 1 virtual processor (standard) and fixed memory of 1 GB. A Network Adapter was also configured using the Virtual Switch Public_Network. A new 60 GB VHDx was created (but it is dynamic - up to 60 GB) in the D: \ VMs \ VMT01 \ folder called VMT01 and the VM path was placed as D: \ VMs. (The VM creates a folder with its own name. When the VM is created, its status is turned off.
At this point it is interesting to check the status of this newly created VM:
Get-Vm -Name VMT01 | fl *


Once the VM was created, there are still some interesting commands. For this VM, before starting, let's make the following changes:
Change from 1 virtual processor to 2:
Get-VM VMT01 | Set-VMProcessor -count 2


Change from 1 GB of Fixed Memory to dynamic memory between 512 MB and 2 GB with 1 GB of initialization;
Get-VM VMT01 | Set-VMmemory –DynamicMemoryEnabled $true –MaximumBytes 2GB –MinimumBytes 512MB –StartupBytes 1GB


Add the ISO of Windows Server 2012 for installing Windows;
Set-VMDvdDrive -vmname VMT01 -Path 'D: \ ISO \ Windows Server 2012 \ Windows_Server_2012_Datacenter_VL.ISO'

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Once the changes are made, the VM is ready to start:
Get-VM VMT01 | Start-VM


Ready the VM is running, ready to be used.
Now suppose we are going to create another VHDx, called VMT01_D2 of 20 GB dynamic in the same folder:
New-VHD -path d: \ vms \ VMT01 \ VMT01_D2.vhdx -SizeBytes 20GB


Only the VHDx created above should be fixed. To transform from dynamic to Fixed we can use:
Convert-VHD -path d: \ vms \ VMT01 \ VMT01_D2.vhdx –DestinationPath “d: \ vms \ VMT01 \ VMT01_D3.vhdx” –VHDtype Fixed


How about adding this VHDx to the VM created with it on:
Add-VMHardDiskDrive –Vmname VMT01 –ControllerType SCSI –ControllerNumber 0 –Path d: \ vms \ VMT01 \ VMT01_D3.vhdx

To finish the basic commands:
Shut down the VM:
Get-VM VMT01 | Stop-VM
To suspend the VM:
Get-VM VMT01 | Suspend-VM
Restart the VM with OS Shutdown:
Get-VM VMT01 | Restart-VM
To check the VM snapshots:
Get-VM VMT01 | Get-VMSnapshot
To create a Snapshot of the VM:
Get-VM VMT01 | Checkpoint-VM
To rename a Snapshot:
Get-VM VMT01 | Rename-VMSnapshot –name “VMT01 - (6/18/2013 - 4:39:44 PM)” –newname SNAP1
To return a VM's Snapshot:
Get-VM VMT01 | Restore-VMSnapshot –name SNAP1
To Delete a Snapshot:
Get-VM VMT01 | Remove-VMSnapshot –name SNAP1

All Powershell commands can be found at:

http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/hh848559(v=wps.620).aspx

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Felipe Santos
Felipe Santos is a Cloud and Security Architect, with experience in Windows Server, Cluster, Storages, Backups Veeam and Office 365 environments.
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